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The 22nd International Symposium on QFD (ISQFD'16-Boise) and
The 27th North American Symposium on QFD
QFD and the Systems Engineering Way of Working
This paper discusses the integration of Modern Blitz QFD® and Pathfinder, a Systems Engineering (SE) approach developed at Rolls Royce. In addition to the modern QFD tools such as Projects Goals Table, Customer Segment Table, Affinity Diagram, Hierarchy Diagram, AHP, and Maximum Value Table, the flow of Pathfinder tools such as Stakeholder Map / Context and Boundary Diagrams and Viewpoint Analysis are employed. The paper will support the ISO 196355 standard to reference good practice and evidence of usage in industry.
Keywords: ISO 16355, Blitz QFD®, Systems Engineering, AHP, Stakeholder Map
The Hoshin Express — From Idea to Project
The mission of the Power Generation Division at NextEra Energy is to deliver certainty of operations and maintenance for all its non-nuclear assets. Exceeding organizational goals are driven by the implementation of quality oriented continuous improvement opportunities that add value. This paper demonstrates the application of Hoshin Kanri - Policy (Priority) Deployment from idea generation to project selection in the central organization of the PGD business unit. Leveraging a systematic method across all fleets in the business unit make it easier to share best practices across the enterprise, provide line-of-sight from high value projects through to business unit strategies, and promote consistency in selecting projects with maximum value in meeting customer needs.
Keywords: Hoshin Kanri, Organizational Strategic Planning, Systematic Policy Deployment, Corporate Priorities, High Value Projects
Soft Systems Method Integration with Sustainable Energy Systems Development Using ISO 16355
The Soft Systems Method was developed by Peter Checkland's team at Lancaster University in the 1970s to help analyze complex situations or 'soft problems' where the problem for which a solution is sought is not clearly understood, or for which differences of opinion exist as to the precise nature of the problem. Such a 'soft problem' exists in the development of sustainable (economic and environmental) energy systems. This paper will illustrate how modern QFD methods described in the 'ISO 16355 standard for QFD' have been used in the UK's Energy Technologies Institute to help in the analysis of the 'soft problem' of transition to low-CO2 energy systems. Illustrations will be given on how these methods can be used to establish system specifications and designs.
Keywords: Sustainable Energy Systems; Soft Systems Method; ISO 16355; Modern QFD; Outcome Based Design; Sustainable Energy; Policy Deployment; Hoshin Kanri; Stakeholder Management; Prioritisation; Needs Analysis; Concept Design; Design Selection
Information Technology / Software 2016
Using QFD to Design a Smart School Quality Factor Model: Integrating QFD into IoT
The internet of things (IoT) relies on the principle of making the whole much greater than individual things by connecting their data. But how can all these things work together effectively? This question is similar to the question which QFD always asks: What is the voice of the customer (VOC) regarding the important qualities of a product? Our research aims to show the integration of QFD will enhance IoT usefulness. This paper begins with an example of developing smart schools with QFD.
Keywords: QFD; IoT; Quality Factors; Smart Schools; Web Services
QFD for Testing the Internet of Things (IoT)
The theory of Combinatory Logic has a model that is very useful when dealing with unknown cause-and-effect relationships. Combinatory Algebra can be seen as a generalization of QFD as it deals with infinite cause-and-effect relationships and it lays the theoretical foundations for managing complexity in the Internet of Things (IoT). This paper shows the model of combinatory logics and how QFD implements such a model in practice, proposing new approaches based on theory for predicting strange and unforeseeable conditions and how the "things" behave under them.
Keywords: Combinatory Logic, Lambda Calculus, Combinatory Algebra, Six Sigma Transfer Functions, QFD, IoT, Automated Testing of IoT
A Method of Software Requirements Analysis Considering the Requirements Volatility from the Risk Management Point of View
Due to immature and volatile nature of software specifications, the incremental development cycle such as spiral and agile models, or even the conventional waterfall model, are still inadequate to address the challenge. It is easier to just accept the potential of requirements change as a risk. In this study, we describe a method of software requirements analysis in consideration of the requirements volatility risk. We use QFD as the base method, while we apply R-Map as a tool for risk assessment. We use actual software changes tracking record to obtain the risk of changing, and we evaluate our proposed method by applying the method to a real software product as our case studies.
Keywords: software requirements volatility, risk management, quality function deployment, r-map
A Critical Analysis of Software QFD Publications
Software QFD publications are analyzed with respect to these points, and future outlook of QFD in software development is discussed.
- Corresponding type of software QFD model used (i.e. traditional, comprehensive, focused or dynamic);
- Reported case studies and application domain (e.g. business software vs. technical software);
- Form of embedding QFD into software development process and its relation to project management activities;
- Essential methodological characteristics such as stakeholders, teamwork, rigor of separating needs and solutions, accuracy of prioritization, and QFD elements such as customer voice tables, affinity diagrams or quality matrices; and
- Consideration of multidisciplinary issues as well as the possibility of reacting to changing working environments caused by digitalization and industry 4.0.
Keywords: Software Quality Function Deployment (Software QFD), Experiences with Software QFD, Literature analysis, Future of QFD
Early Requirements Validation by Means of Virtual Prototypes for the QFD Use
Understanding requirements as part of proactive quality management is important, as is the need for early requirements validation for product development process. For this, using three dimensional virtual reality (3D VR) early on allows developers to visually illustrate or simulate product features and functions. Integrated into the QFD, it is possible to restructure the requirements at an early stage. Based on clear requirement structures, the results of this proactive quality measure can lead to better product quality..
Keywords: Customer requirements, product development, QFD, virtual prototype, 3D virtual reality
Keeping Up with Global Best Practice: ISO 16355—Applications of Statistical and Related Methods to New Technology and Product Development Process
This paper outlines the structure of the eight parts of the newly published ISO 16355, how they build on older QFD models from the 1970s and 80s, and what you need to do to become a leader and facilitator of this Modern QFD standard. ISO 16355 is already attracting the attention of quality organizations, Six Sigma, and Lean professionals. New Product Development professionals will want to master these global best practices so they can engage their organizations in surging ahead of their competitors in creating the truly great products their customers demand.
Keywords: ISO 16355, QFD, Hoshin Kanri
Using AHP in QFD—The Impact of the New ISO 16355 Standard
Traditional QFD uses ordinal weights-percentages of a total to describe priorities for customer's needs and technical solution approaches, while AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) works with profiles-vectors of unit length one, making it mathematically possible to add, subtract and compare profiles. The ratio method proposed by Dr. Saaty has been a part of Modern QFD for some time, and it is now incorporated in the new ISO standard 16335. Not understanding how to properly apply AHP in QFD, however, could lead to project failures, especially if you are still using the traditional House of Quality (HoQ) matrix. This paper discusses why and how to update the HoQ practice to the new ISO.
Keywords: AHP, QFD, Comprehensive QFD, Six Sigma, Eigenvectors, Linear Algebra, ISO 16355
New Kano Model / New Product Development & Marketing 2016
Using the New Kano Model: How to Really Excite Your Customers
Kano model is well known for its intriguing diagram of 'exciting quality' vs. 'expected quality.' However, it is one of the most misunderstood concept. As one of a few who actually examined the original 1984 research by Noriaki Kano, Ph.D., et.al, the author points out some serious deficiencies in the original Kano model as well as the one commonly practiced in America and elsewhere. He then presents the New Kano Model that offers superior insights on what needs to be done to really build excitements in new product development.
Keywords: New Kano Model, exciting quality, new product development, extrapolating design decisions, latent requirements, advanced QFD
Sustainability Function Deployment (QFD) Applied to Increase Environmental and Social Economic Value Added of Products, Service, and Projects
Products and services have the objective to increase quality of life, but in some cases the result is a negative impact to the community (environment, society, economy, and health). This can be especially true in rural communities. Using QFD to integrate socioeconomic life cycle assessment (SLCA) in five projects will demonstrate up to three times the economic value added. For three projects, information was collected directly in the communities, using focus groups, surveys and investigation. SLCA was then used to understand impact. Finally, critical functions of the projects, products, and services were determined by applying QFD and SFD. Results were examined for social economic return on investment (SEROI) in order to identify functions and characteristics that can maximize economic value added to existing or future projects, products, or services.
Keywords: Sustainability Function deployment (SFD), socioeconomic value added, environmental life cycle assessment
TQM / Kaizen 2016
TQM Implementation in China via Practicing QFD
Although TQM was introduced to China in the 1980s, it is only recently that Chinese manufacturers began recognizing its importance, as they face increasing competition from countries that offer even cheaper labor and declining global economy that affects the purchasing powers of their overseas customers. Added to this are Chinese organizational culture and Chinese way of implementing TQM that are not helping. This paper explains why introducing QFD is an essential business strategy for Chinese manufacturers in their pursuit for sustainable success in the global market.
Keywords: Quality function deployment, QFD, total quality management, TQM implementation, Chinese manufacturing enterprises
A Study on Sustainable KAIZEN based on Job Function Deployment Methodology and Methods Engineering at On-site Logistics and Processes
Job function deployment is a method that helps transform customer needs into engineering attributes for a service or product. Methods engineering is a domain of industrial engineering that deals with human integration and manufacturing engineering. These two methodologies used together, can help companies achieve "KAIZEN" as understood in the context of Japanese corporate culture and philosophy, a success that even non-Japanese companies can emulate.
Keywords: Job Function Deployment, Method Engineering, KAIZEN
QFD Historical Milestones 2016
Historical Perspectives on Global Spread of QFD
2016 marks the 50th anniversary of Quality Function Deployment (QFD) since the first case study publication half century ago in Japan. A new important milestone has been achieved recently: The establishment of ISO 16355 for QFD, approved in May 2016 ISO meeting in London, UK. Recognizing these historic moments, this International Symposium on QFD in Boise assembled the pioneers of QFD from Japan, US, Germany, EU, and China, to share their experience and perspectives on global spread of QFD.
Keywords: History of QFD, Global QFD dissemination, ISO 16355, advancements in QFD, QFD in EU, QFD in Americas, QFD in Japan, QFD in China
Slides for panel discussion: “The origins and history of Japanese quality development and deployment”
The 26th Symposium on QFD (ISBN 1-889477-26-5)
"Proposed Systematic Priority Deployment Method of Strategic Initiatives"
The mission of the Power Generation Division at NextEra Energy is to deliver certainty of operations and maintenance for all its non-nuclear assets. Exceeding organizational goals are driven by the implementation of quality oriented continuous improvement opportunities that add value. This paper proposes a systematic method to deploy strategic initiatives across the business unit that places emphasis on selecting projects of maximum value. Leveraging a systematic method across all fleets in the business unit make it easier to share best practices across the enterprise, provide line-of-sight from high value projects through to business unit strategies, and promote consistency in selecting projects with maximum value in meeting customer needs.
Keywords: Blitz, QFD, AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process), Priority, HOQ (House of Quality)
IT / Software 2014
"QFD for Cloud Computing"
The introduction of the client-server model in the 80s had a huge impact on the information technology used in manufacturing industry as well as within IT organizations (e.g. concerning the operation and the development of applications). Just like that, cloud computing will have a severe impact on almost all industries. This paper describes how QFD can be used to define specifications for cloud based IT solutions. Starting with the global mega trends, this paper explains the characteristics of cloud computing and their impact on the application of QFD, especially on the collaboration of all involved stakeholders. From this analysis and a conducted case study with a German information technology service provider, the authors derive several recommendations on how to execute QFD for cloud computing.
Keywords: Cloud Computing, IT, QFD
"Helping Software Engineers Apply QFD Methods"
There are many documented benefits of using QFD. The software engineer can use QFD as a framework for activities aimed at improving the quality of software. Since QFD was originally proposed to develop high quality manufactured products, a few considerations must take place before applying it to software development. Based on the waterfall model (four phase model), the researchers of this academic paper point out how QFD tools can be used to benefit software engineers, what features QFD is missing with respect to common software engineering practices, and how QFD can become more applicable to software engineers.
Keywords: QFD, SQFD, Software Engineer, Software Engineering, Waterfall Model
New Kano Model / Designing Exciting Quality 2014
"New Kano Model — How to Really Excite Your Customers"
Dr. Noriaki Kano developed an interesting approach to classifying quality attributes by determining customer satisfaction with different levels of product features or performance. Results of a unique survey of positive / neutral / negative responses to questions can help developers determine whether a new feature or performance would be an exciter or a basic expectation of the customer. General Motors began using Kano's method some years ago and achieved additional insights by making adaptations of the method. Among these insights included revealing unknown market segments, marketing/advertising content, and clearer performance targets for each segment. This papr discusses details of this as well as a case study for automotive braking systems. This modified approach is now called the New Kano Model and will provide better understanding of the model and implementation.
Keywords: New Kano Model, Attractive Quality, Expected Quality, Customer Satisfaction Survey
"Designing Sustainable Products With QFD"
As sustainability is often loosely defined and may be desired but not understood by the customer, QFD is an ideal tool for determining a product’s requirements. Additionally, sustainable products can involve significant deviation from traditional solutions so it is important to incorporate it early in the design process prior to the rapid decrease of design freedom that takes place once design has begun. This paper examines the process of developing sustainable products and proposes a framework for ensuring that sustainability is addressed.
Keywords: Sustainability, Sustainable Product Development, Sustainable Design, QFD
ISO 16355 and QFD 2014
"Driving Your QFD with ISO 16355"
This paper explains how to drive different kinds of QFD projects based on the advanced deployments in Dr. Yoji Akao's comprehensive book "Quality Function Deployment: Integrating Customer Requirements into Product Design." While most QFD experts are familiar only with Customer-driven QFD which begins with a market focus, these advanced drivers address many other types of new product development projects. Included will be Technology-driven QFD, Cost-driven QFD, Competitor-driven QFD, Regulatory-driven QFD, Manufacturing-driven QFD, etc., exemplified with case studies. These are included in the draft "ISO 16355 for QFD." Find out what you will need to know and change in order to comply with the new standard.
Keywords: Technology-driven QFD, Cost-driven QFD, Competitor-driven QFD, Regulatory-driven QFD, Manufacturing-driven QFD, ISO 16355
Bonus Papers 2014
"Using QFD to Design a Multi-Disciplinary Clinic "
Keywords: Children's Mercy Hospital, Healthcare QFD
"DREAM/QFD to Re-design Staff Service Excellence at Rutland Regional Hospital Systems"
Keywords: Rutland Regional Health Systems, Healthcare QFD
"Future Combat System Concept Development: Integrating Service and Product Requirements in QFD"
Keywords: Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control, Defense QFD, DOD QFD
"The Analytic Hierarchy Process: How to Measure Intangibles in a Meaningful Way Side by Side with Tangibles"
Keywords: Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Thomas L. Saaty, Ph.D.
"Why We Drink Beer: Using QFD, Kansei, and AHP to Understand How Consumers Identify with Brands"
Keywords: Beverage QFD, Beer QFD, Branding QFD, Boonrawd Trading International, Thai Beer
The 19th International & 25th North American Symposium on QFD (ISBN 1-889477-25-7)
Keynote: "Global QFD: From Japan to the World"
Since its conception in Japan in 1966, QFD continues to advance and spread across the world. In this keynote, the global history of QFD is presented, recalling each inaugural training and project that Dr. Akao personally was involved. These include the 1981 introduction to South Korea, Taiwan (1882), USA (1983), Italy (1988) and many so other countries.
Keywords: Comprehensive QFD, International QFD
"A Critical Analysis of the Turkish Literature on QFD"
This paper reviews Turkish publications on Quality Function Deployment (QFD) produced between 2000 and 2012, offering a knowledge base and holistic references for researchers studying QFD.
Keywords: QFD, QFD publications and literatures, Turkey
"Top technology is not all we need for a successful business: QFD logic, methods and tools —Dutch experience"
This paper reports a pilot project in The Netherlands, the utilization of QFD for business development. It will share the Dutch experience of customer centered marketing campaigns based on the VOC and modern QFD, as well as the logical, systematic, and interactive link between commercial and technology teams in one organization.
Keywords: Modern QFD, Business Development, Business Analysis, VOC
"Towards QFD-based Industrial Design"
Customer Orientation is achieved within QFD by a systematic approach. Within industrial design, requirements of the customer are also analysed and deployed with the power of artistic creativity, less with a systematic or qualitative approach. The paper proposes the integration of QFD and industrial design through a case study, leading a tentative framework for QFD-based Industrial Design.
IT Architecture / IT Security / Software QA
"QFD and Requirements Prioritization: A Survey on Security Requirements for Cloud Computing"
Prioritization is an essential task within QFD, and QFD is highly suitable for the development of Cloud Computing (CC) applications where non-functional requirements play a main role. Many of them are security requirements, often the main concern for CC investments. This paper introduces the usage of QFD for Cloud Computing (CC). In this research, CC security requirements were prioritized by pairwise comparison, showing that not all security requirements are equally important. With this finding, the appropriate usage of QFD for CC development will be discussed.
Keywords: QFD, Requirements Prioritization, Security Requirements, Cloud Computing
"Application of QFD to the Symptom Analysis of Input-device Software Defects"
The traditional function/regression tests following the design specification do not adequately ensure software quality, due to the evaluation complexity posed by various input-device software such as USB, wireless communication device, sensor, LCD display technologies, etc. This paper proposes a better method for evaluating and analyzing software defects by correctly assessing the symptoms of original causes of failures and identifying the relationships between the operations and subjects through the use of the function deployment tables and state transition tables. This feeds back not only reliability but also functionality to the quality evaluation.
Keywords: Software QA, QFD, FTA, Symptom Analysis, Test Coverage, Evaluation Deployment
"Improving a Learning Management System based on QFD and Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)"
This paper focuses on the improvement of web-based services, e.g. a learning management system, whose users are invisible by discovering their needs and translating them into the artictecture of this system through the integration of QFD and Service Oriented Architecture (SOA).
Keywords: QFD, SOA, Online Learning, Customer Process Model, Gemba Visit table, AHP, CVT, MVT, Turkey
"Improvement of University e-Portfolio System in Consideration of Students' Demands"
Using a QFD approach, demand analysis and factor analysis were performed for the successful introduction of e-Portfolio system for a public university in Japan. By analyzing the students' demands and factors of an existing software, the researchers were able to turn the e-Portfolio system software into an information infrastructure that can be fully utilized by students for effective introspective study and efficient completion of their study plans.
Keywords: Quality Assurance in Higher Education, e-Portfolio, Requirement Analysis, Software Development
"Software Development Method Based on Twin Peaks Model with QFD"
In software system development, it is important to analyze the stakeholder’s requirements and design the architecture. One proposed method for this is the twin peaks model which intertwines software requirements and architectures to achieve incremental development and speedy delivery. The researchers used QFD to clarify these relationships in hope to propose more efficient software development.
Keywords: Software Development, Requirements, Architecture Design
New Product Development
"Quality Function Deployment for New Product Development: Transforming Waste to Worth"
Barley grain is a waste product from the customer’s production process and typically sold as pet food. By incorporating our innovative product, we have developed a new kind of eco-friendly construction material that adds value both in function and for the customer’s brand image. This paper reports an application of QFD in this NPD, most challengingly in eliciting the needs from psychological elements and deploying them into design specifications, development process, sourcing, and other considerations for successful product rollout.
Keywords: Gebba visit, VOC table, HoQ table, Design of experiment, Concept Test
"Application of QFD for the Development of An Organic Product: A Pilot Study"
This paper reports a pilot QFD application for the development of an organic product. The paper presents a conceptual model which consists of four matrices for the development of an organic fruit jelly. The main adaptation is in the first matrix to include major actors in the production supply chain. The first results indicate the feasibility of the proposal for food development.
Keywords: Product Development, Organic Products, QFD
"Study of Applying QFD to Modularity Strategy"
Japanese manufactures are excellent at developing integral type products, such as cars and complicated machines that need fine tuning (e.g. Semiconductor manufacturing machines). However, many products are currently shifting toward modular systems, and this is where Japanese manufacturers are weak at establishing logical architectures and rules needed for modularity. This paper defines a better modular product architecture by using QFD to arrange many complex issues such as customer needs, cost, technology, manufacturability, serviceability etc. and simulates them through a series of matrices.
Keywords: QFD, Modularity, Modular, Integral-type
"Starting QFD for Clothing Manufacturers in Hong Kong"
Some 20 years ago the Hong Kong clothing manufacturers only had to deal with the sewing or knitting of the samples for fashion designers. Today they are expected to provide technical design services as well as sample development process. The increasing degree of abstractness and the shift from quantitative to qualitative nature of technical data have created many communication problems. This paper identifies the areas in which QFD can help Hong Kong clothing manufacturers in development and design and also explore the effective QFD approaches.
Keywords: Clothing Manufacturers, Apparel Industry, QFD, Hong Kong
"A Study of Service Quality Improvement Using the Theories of Nonverbal Communication, FMEA and QFD"
This study discusses how to improve the service quality. Study of service industry presents unique challenges because of soft issue measurements such as quality evaluation and service quality. With this in mind, the authors propose a quality improvement process specifically for service industry and will show a case study using non-verbal communication, FMEA, and QFD.
Keywords: Service Quality Improvement, QC story, QFD
Keynote: "QFD for Membership Organizations — Practicing What We Teach"
Dr. Armand Feigenbaum, appreciating the power of quality thinking in transforming the post-war economies of Europe and Japan, planted the seeds in 1966 for the International Academy for Quality (IAQ), a membership organization that facilitates an international exchange of information about quality in order to promote quality throughout all nations. The IAQ’s growing membership in developing nations means that member needs have to be periodically assessed and incorporated into future activities, beyond its original missions. Following the footsteps of the QFD founders, late Dr. Shigeru Mizuno and Dr. Yoji Akao, the author (an elected member of IAQ since 2010 and the Secretary and Treasurer since 2013) has proposed to current President Janak Mehta, that QFD be used to reassess current member needs and plan future programs. The study began in 2013 with a survey to members regarding their "likes" and "wishes" about IAQ membership and for suggestions for the future. This paper will explain the QFD process being used for this assessment, including the data from the responses, as well as the results to date and ongoing improvements to the organization.
Keywords: Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Modern Blitz QFD®, Voice of Customers (VOC), Membership Organization, Service Quality
"QFD for activating a workplace Ba—Part 2"
The various components of QFD draw out member's tacit knowledge through ‘Ba’ (the workplace gemba). In order to achieve this, the ‘Ba’ must be invigorated with changes that encourage the individuals to express and share his/her tacit knowledge. This paper, a sequel to the author’s 2012 presentation, examines the relationship between QFD and ‘Ba’ from the viewpoint of cognitive engineering and social-psychology and show some examples of his company’s practices.
Keywords: Service Quality Improvement, QC story, QFD
"Modern QFD Application on a Supply Chain to Become Green"
This paper focuses on determination of "green" practices for environmentally friendly supply chains, such as green procurement, green production, green distribution/marketing, and reverse logistics. This research identifies the processes that should be pursued by each member of the supply chain to become a “green” practitioner.
Keywords: Modern QFD, Supply Chain, Green Practice
"Application of QFD within a Co-opetition Network of Public Transport Organizations"
The paper reports a QFD application case study from a project funded by the German federal ministry of Education and Research. Public transport organizations are competitors as well as cooperative partners. In this setting of co-opetition we apply QFD, with the vision of offering passengers seamless transportation services. The paper presents the necessary adaptations and extensions of QFD as well as lessons learned.
Keywords: QFD, Public Transportation, Competitive Cooperation
"Quality and Safety Control Method of High-speed Rail Based on QFD & FEMA [sic]"
Based solely on hypothetical scenario / case and others' literature, this academic reseach paper presents the use of the 4-phase model approach and FEMA [sic] for control quality and safety of China's high-speed rail.
"A Statistical Engineering Approach to Codifying the Voice of the Customer"
This paper proposes a way to create a logical flow for the Voice of the Customer processing by codifying a series of tools into a linear statistical engineering roadmap, in order to populate the conventional House of Quality matrix that uses "whats" and "hows" approach. The proposed method is explained with hypothetical data and examples.
"Elementary QFD: Using QFD to Assess and Evaluate the Learning Environment of a Private School Library and to Systematically Engage an ISACS Review"
A Modern Blitz QFD® application in a non-traditional customer/product model – a school. Emerson School is a private school located in Ann Arbor, Michigan, which is in the midst of undergoing a review by The Independent Schools Association of the Central States (ISACS). The project goal was to identify key customers and translate their Voice of Customer as well as ISACS criteria into true customer needs. Often organizations act on a situation without fully determining the true needs of stakeholders that would reveal the important context or unstated factor, leading to inadequate solutions or even exacerbated situations. This occurred several years ago. QFD Gemba study revealed the largest and unexpected hindrances to the current learning environment in the library media center. These observations and customer verbatims were translated into true needs and fully ordered using paired comparisons in the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Finally, the highest ranking needs were evaluated on a systematic level, addressing potential causes for concern such as difficulties of implementation, perception of teachers and students, as well as resources like cost, time and effort.
Keywords: Blitz QFD®, gemba visits, VOC translation, AHP, ISACS review, defining customers, elementary school, learning environment
Information Technology 2012
"Change Fix Model"
Some of the issues that add complication to IT projects include volatility of customer requirements and assessing risks involving changes. The Change Fix Model aims to improve agility of the estimation by using lean and QFD tools, enabling assessment of the impact of a change into the entire software lifecycle, starting with a regression model for establishing the relationship between impact of change and additional effort for implementing the change. A major player in communications was facing cost and cycle time challenges due to quality and volatality of the requirements. The end users faced issues in the features, and integration suffered many functional defects, as a result. Upon a root cause analysis, management wanted a mechanism to measure the volatality and score the quality of the requirements with respect to the importance of prioritizing and baselining requirement changes in agile as well as a non-agile environments. Using a CTQ drill down tree, which is one of the mechanisms to implement QFD, the paper is the first of its kind to measure the impact of a change by using a regression model.
Keywords: Change Fix Model
Political QFD 2012
"QFD and Politics (A Sure Way To Start An Argument)"
First of its kind, this paper examines using QFD in a political campaign. QFD is the art and science of taking the voice of the customer (VOC), and, more specifically, the top needs of the targeted customer segments, into consideration before developing a product or service. Can this technique be applied to a political campaign? This paper addresses this lofty question with the specific steps of using Modern Blitz QFD® tools for an actual election campaign by his wife Ruth Ann for a Florida county judgeship. The primary focus of this paper is to understand how to: 1) select target segments; 2) use the voice (top needs) of the target segment customers to develop the strategy; 3) create messaging; and 4) deploy the messaging to the targeted segments. This presentation will present the QFD analytics and tools used to understand the constituents' VOC and formulate the campaign strategy deployment. Carey’s QFD application is solid and innovative. It deploys downstream using the data to make strategic and operational decisions. For example, what sort of true “customer needs” can be identified from this verbatim voice of voters — “what do you think about the Chick-fil-A case?” and then what kind of a campaign strategy and slogan should be deployed?
Keywords: political QFD, election campaign, voice of constituents, target segments, political messaging, strategy
"Repertory Grid – Potential for Requirements Management in the Quality Function Deployment - An Example of the German Smartphone Market"
Integration of cognitive psychology science, the Repertory Grid Technique (RGT), into QFD is proposed. In evaluating quality/performance of a product/service, customers follow unconscious personal perceptions, besides consideration of physical properties such as size, color, functions, etc. It is these unconsciously perceived characteristics that play an important role in the decision making process. Based on the Personal Construct Theory that contends that people experience, organize, and describe their environment in terms of cognitive personal concepts, the RGT was initially used in psychological diagnosis but has evolved to a set of general guidelines used in a wide variety of application domains, including environmental studies, education, healthcare, business, and it can be useful in identification of customer requirements in QFD analysis. Using a case of German smartphone market, this paper introduces RGT and show how it can be used in QFD analysis.
Keywords: QFD, Repertory Grid, voice of customer , customer requirements
"Implementing Quality Function Deployment to Improve Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction: A Three Stages Empirical Approach in Jordanian Mobile Telecommunication"
QFD has had considerable success in companies, specifically in service sector, and therefore has been the subject of many research studies in recent years. The purpose of this study is to develop a QFD model that can be applied to evaluate the extent to improve customer satisfaction in the telecommunications industry in Jordan. This industry is vital to Jordanian economy and has become highly developed in recent years. The study develops a conceptual model that integrates the SERVQUAL Gap model and QFD which would, though identification of attractive attributes, highlight the weaker attributes to be overcome and innovative services to be implemented in the future. The first stage involved designing, administering and analyzing the SERVQUAL framework questionnaire. The study population comprises all Jordanian mobile telecommunication companies (Zain, Orange, and Umniah) located in Amman, the capital of Jordan. There is a gap between expectations and experience in all service quality dimensions. The QFD Model will be used to close these gaps.
Keywords: service quality, Quality Function Deployment, customer satisfaction
"Going to the Gemba: Number Two with a Bullet"
A case study of China's high-speed rail, this paper will report the 'gemba' study to capture the VOC for the second generation bullet trains being developed by Tangshan Railway Vehicle Company and the Chinese Ministry of Railways. QFD was selected as a way to address the design deficiencies (such as quality and safety) manifested in their first generation bullet trains. The symposium presentation will include the unique gemba story in a country where the central government believes it represents the VOC, analytic methods such as thematic content analysis, MS Excel® sorting, affinity and Pareto analysis as well as the continuing challenge of overcoming the culturally ingrained belief that the government speaks for everyone
Keywords: bullet train, gemba,high-speed rail (HSR), master HOQ, ministry of railways (MoR), neighborhood of quality (NOQ), Peoples’ Republic of China (PRC), QFD Capture, T-solution (TS), Tangshan Railway Vehicle Company, thematic content analysis (TCA), statement of work (SOW) , MS Excel® sorting
2012 Skills Building Exercise
Hoshin Kanri (Strategic Policy Management) mini workshop
Hoshin Kanri is a systematic quality approach to planning, executing, auditing, and managing corporate vision and business strategy. It is a company-wide strategic management system that uses common QFD tools to visually indicate the relationships between executive-level targets and the means to achieve them, and those of direct reports. In this mini workshop using Blitz Hoshin approach, attendees are introduced to the basic concept and application of how Hoshin Kanri works through an easy-to-follow example and hands-on exercise. The 2012 Transactions volume contains the slides from this session.
The 23rd Symposium on QFD (ISBN 1-889477-23-0)
Medical Device 2011
"The QFD Process at Medtronic — Creating the Next Generation of Insulin Pumps and Sensors"
Changes in technology and customer expectations are creating many new opportunities for medical device organizations. As the oldest and most respected diabetic medical device organization in the world, Medtronic MiniMed strives to stay ahead of the competition by quickly responding to these changes with new and improved insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitoring products. Recently, we have began using QFD to discover the unspoken customer needs for targeted portions of our population. QFD has allowed us to convert their needs into new products, services, and features to delight and attract new customers as well as retain current customers. This paper will describe some of the new opportunities we are facing, and show step by step how we are addressing them by understanding the Voice of the Customer and innovating and implementing exciting solutions.
Keywords: Voice of the customer, QFD, cross-functional teams, design, prioritization, AHP, segments, medical device QFD
Six Sigma and QFD 2011
"Using QFD to Organize Design for Six Sigma"
DFSS tools require organization using Product Line Management methods. QFD provides a means to sequentially develop market features into engineering functions that are specified by quantitative requirements which are testable. Understanding the Voice of the Customer and using the Kano Model to characterize engineering functions that are integrated with QFD can help to provide creative insights. This paper illustrates how to develop and deploy this approach to DFSS using QFD as an organization method and using the Kano Model to focus on the transition of market features into engineering functions.
Keywords: Design for Six Sigma (DFSS), Kano model, Voice of the customer (VoC), Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and DFSS
IT Architecture Management / IT Service Management 2011
"Applying QFD Process, Tools and Techniques for Service Management: Business and IT Service Management (BSM & ITSM)"
Quality Function Deployment and the House of Quality (HoQ) are tools that have relevance for field of IT management, particularly architecture management (including requirements management) and IT service management (including service quality management). This paper provides a detailed method to use QFD and HoQ in the 1) Requirements Management Process; 2) Architecture Development Management Process; and 3) Service Management Processes such as: Availability Management, Continuity Management, and Incident Management, among others. This paper focuses on the use of QFD and HoQ and their applications for enterprise architecture domains and IT service management domains. Specific examples of applications of QFD for IT enabled business services (such as CRM services) and IT services (such as messaging services) will be discussed.
Keywords: Service Management, Six Sigma, QFD, Architecture Management, Requirements Management
Healthcare QFD 2011
"Using QFD to Design a Multi-Disciplinary Clinic"
Pediatric patients and families have become discriminating shoppers for healthcare. Hospitals must improve quality and attract and retain patients. This paper proposes Quality Function Deployment ( QFD) as a way to ensure focus on the vital few requirements, creating a structured planning and decision making methodology for capturing and translating stakeholder requirements into useful clinic language for the building of the Virtual Clinic. The QFD tools used include Customer Segments Table, Customer Process Model, Customer Voice Table, Gemba Visit Table, Customer Needs Hierarchy Diagram, Analytical Hierarchy Process, Customer Needs Hierarchy Diagram With AHP Priorities.
Keywords: AHP, Multi-Disciplinary Clinic, Patient and Family Centered Care, Virtual Clinic, VOB, VOC, Healthcare QFD
Corporate Governance 2011
"QFD Applications for the Board of Directors"
Quality Function Deployment is not just a methodology that is useful for engineering or marketing — it is also helpful for organizing the design and development of policy by the Board of Directors. The International Academy for Quality (IAQ) has been developing the concept of "governance quality" over the past 15 years. Recently, IAQ has published an assessment methodology for Boards of Directors to apply in assessing their level of maturity in application of quality in the practices of their activities. This paper and presentation will extend this work by developing infrastructure for the leadership initiatives of a Board in the encouragement of continuous improvement of the organization from their level of executive oversight. The methodology for developing a strategic approach to quality definition and deployment will be the "Voice of the Customer" as developed using QFD.
Keywords: Corporate Governance, QFD for Boards of Directors, policy development QFD
Complex Systems / Systems Engineering 2011
"Systems Engineering (SE) and Quality Function Deployment (QFD): A SE Perspective on Opportunities for Complementary Application in the Development of Complex Systems"
Basic principles of SE are described with emphasis on the SE process and the challenges associated with development of highly complex systems. SE and QFD are top-down, structured, disciplined and tailorable problem-solving processes for identifying customer-focused system solutions, and both processes typically start with an effort to fully understand customer needs. SE can be generally characterized as a functional architecture-based analysis approach to embed quality requirements into the system, and QFD can be generally characterized as a physical architecture-based analysis approach to embed quality functions into business processes. The different perspectives offer potential for complementary application to improve complex system development. Opportunities for complementary application of SE and QFD in the areas of problem understanding, requirements engineering, quality management, cross-functional teamwork, communication, risk management, value engineering, verification and validation, and integrated life-cycle engineering are summarized. The relationship between SE and QFD is illustrated in some cases using figures and diagrams generally accepted to represent best practices. A generalized method for estimation of system complexity early in SE and QFD process is described and a research framework for retrospective analysis of Department of Defense (DoD) Major Defense Acquisition Programs (MDAPs) and commercial engineering projects is discussed. Hypotheses of the relationship between system complexity, design effort, design review, requirements stability, and program success are suggested to gain further insight into the correlation between SE and QFD (comprehensive, 4-phase model, SE+QFD) design effort and successful development of complex systems.
Keywords: systems engineering (SE); quality function deployment (QFD); complex systems; major defense acquisition program (MDAP); customer needs; requirements; risk; lifecycle; design effort; design review; requirements stability; project success; complexity estimation
Dynamic Capability Theory / Kano Model 2011
"Applying Dynamic Capability Theory to Understand the Kano Model for Attractive Quality"
The concept of Dynamic Capability was proposed by David J. Teece as a means to explain certain phenomena regarding innovation in new product development. The Theory of Attractive Quality developed by Noriaki Kano explains the relationship between functional design capability and customer satisfaction for three functional quality conditions. This paper links these two concepts. A proposed scalar relationship between the Kano functions will be proposed based on the degree of capability or incapability based on the Teece concept of Dynamic capability as a means to better explain the erosion of quality functions over time.
Keywords: Dynamic Capability, Kano model, functional quality, customer satisfaction